Personality, Individual Differences, and Intelligence

Module Project: Factor Analysis of Personality Data Part 3 Discussion

LPSY 316: Personality, Individual Differences, and Intelligence

Jimmy Petruzzi

 

 

DISCUSSION

The research was able to provide evidence the 5 factors were present, by examining the data collected from the administration and participation of the questionnaire. Through conducting a factor analysis the research supported the hypothesis, reaffirming the reliability, validity and versatility of FFM administered across cultures, through the modification of the questionnaire with the IPIP. (2014).and the correlation with the FFM and the Traits.

The research we conducted met the following criteria, according to Stevens, (2002) a participant group over 200 is required  for reliability  and the loading value needs to be over .162, the number of participants we had was 1006, the 5 Items we retained were above .162.

Upon examination of the research it was established that the highest factor was 1, which was unexpected.   Factor 1 was the Conscientiousness trait: consciousness had each item scored >.5

The research recorded the highest number of  entries  for factor 2 Neuroticism, confirming from examination  of the data of the factor analysis factor 2 Neuroticism  as expected had the highest level of responses from participants. The research was able to establish below factor 2 Neuroticism was factor 3 Extroversion and factor 4 openness.

Consistent with the research hypothesis estimation the factor with the lowest values was factor 5: agreeableness, Taking into consideration that omission of item 9 because it was loaded onto factor 6,The following data Neuroticism receiving a high score and agreeableness a low score supported our estimation, although   in contrast the high entries for consciousness disproved our initial hypothesis.

Evaluation

Research by McCrae & Costa, 1997 suggested the FFM could be adapted cross culturally, in different societies and continents. The research suggested the modification of the Questionnaire for the participants  was successful and  able to  collect and provide data for  the 5 factors.

According to research by  Goldberg (2001) the FFM can be adapted successfully  for the administration to suit the cognitive abilities of the participant’s,  the research supported this hypothesis   the  questionnaire was successfully adapted and completed by the participants  to suit the cognitive abilities participants  and  translated from English into Intuit language.

In addition to support our hypothesis research by  Wiggins & Trapnell, 1997 suggesting  the FFM has a biological base and the ability to adapt cross cultural, which was an important factor as questions had to be adapted to culturally to the Intuit participants and adapted to the Intuit language.

 

 

 

This following values did not correlate with different research hypothesis or our estimation around conscientiousness ,according to the statistical data on the Intuit population Usalcas, (2009) suggesting high levels of unemployment , lower levels in education graduation and higher health risks amongst the Intuit population.

Which does not correlate with  research by  Scepansky,& Bjornsen, (2003) identified  higher levels of the personality traits conscientiousness, and openness  amongst students who had  who had a profound interest in  continuing on to  graduate education  and students who planned  to leave school and potentially find work , there was also a correlation between students interested in continuing their education and engagement in lessons, which suggests a correlation between personality traits.

The following statistics according to Usalcas, (2009) as specified above also did not support the following research ,according to Research by Bogg  & Roberts, (2013) suggest a correlation between Conscientiousness and long term  positive health, the research examines  the personality trait Conscientiousness and suggests a correlation with several health conditions.

Research suggests by Poropat, (2009). Conscientiousness has a correlation with academic achievement, the participants scored high on the conscientiousness trait  According to the IPIP The facets of Conscientiousness  are self-efficacy, orderliness , dutifulness, achievement striving, self-discipline which was not expected by our research considering past literature on the conscientiousness trait and correlation to education and well being.

One explanation could be upon examination from a different paradigm research by Shaw, (2016) suggests  emotional regulation is a component the resilience dealing with the challenges suggested the Inuit community face. The following research  Ferrazzi & Krupa, (2016) take into consideration the Intuit lifestyle and the responsibility adolescents have at early age and the changing demographic in the Intuit community , involving adaptation to western society and climatic changes impacting basic survival The responsibility of  an adolescent in the Intuit community, is vastly different comparatively to  western society, there could I been a misunderstanding in the translation or a factor in cultural values around the participants  understanding of the facets for conscientiousness.

To support this theory research by Lim & Abdullah, (2012) suggested that whilst openness and conscientiousness, did not have a direction causation in Malaysian  student  academic attainment. In identification of the facets associated  with openness and conscientiousness a platform could be built influencing learners performance in a positive way.

The trait conscientiousness could be correlated to aspects of Intuit adolescent life involving survival,

In support of the research hypothesis  Research  by  Laursen,Pulkkinen, & Adams, (2002) suggest  a low score on the  agreeableness  trait correlates to poor academic performance and behavioural problems  in school, suggesting higher scores on agreeableness in adulthood  correlate  with more stability on work and life, less maladaptive behaviour, and less likely to develop depression and alcohol problems.

The research is consistent with our research findings and hypothesis  suggesting the adolescent participants scored low on a agreeableness, and other research which suggested a high depression ratio amongst the Intuit community and higher rates of unemployment amongst the Intuit community comparatively to the general Canadian population according Inuit Tapiriit Kanatami and Indian and Northern Affairs Canada. (2007c). the ratio  of unemployment   in Nunavut  is 19.1%  with men  23.0% compared with women  15.1%. The following research by Feingold, (1994); suggest  women  in general  are  more agreeable then men. According to the following research by  Sackett and Walmsley, (2014) the agreeableness personality trait has a strong correlation to work performance across many sectors, this research could suggest a correlation between higher levels of employment in the Intuit community amongst women comparatively to men.

According to Usalcas, (2009 ) the   Canadian unemployment rate  was approx. 5.8% in 2008. Which contrasts the much higher levels of unemployment amongst the Intuit community compared to the Canadian population  outside the Intuit population.

In support to our hypothesis and research findings the research expected to establish the participants scored highly neuroticism, Research by Lahey (2009)  suggests neuroticism has a big impact on public health, suggesting that certain genes that correlate with neuroticism correlate with a number  of mental disorders mental disorders.

Neuroticism high response supports our hypothesis and supports the following research  According to Costa and McCrae( 1985), Neuroticism is a trait associated to lack of emotional control, anxiety, sadness,.

Research by  Eggertson (2013) suggests a higher level of suicide amongst the intuit community  which correlates to a higher level of depression, comparatively to the general Canadian population

Watson, D., & Naragon-Gainey, K. (2014). discuss how Neuroticism has the highest correlation of any of the traits to psychopathology , suggesting scores on the higher end of the Neuroticism have correlations with depression,anxiety , substance, link to health behaviours smoking and drinking, which supports our research findings around Neuroticism.

 

LIMITATIONS

To complete the research questionnaire  the  participants  utilised paper and black pen, future  research would take into consideration using a computer and a specific software programme for practicality if the participants accidentally marked the wrong response could change it more efficiently.

The research to into consideration a study by De Fruyt, Mervielde, Hoekstra, & Rolland,(2000) demonstrating  certain questions were not understood  by children participating in a NEO–PI–R translated into Flemish. whilst the research questionnaire we developed took translation into consideration and provided participants support, additional research suggests the adolescents  taking a test on certain words to ensure they understand and interpreted the words correctly for example one of the questions was  I often feel blue, this could have been misinterpreted by  the colour blue by some participants.

According to Gurven, Rueden, Massenkoff, Kaplan, & Vie (2013) Discusses how administering the FFM in a largely illiterate society in Bolivia, raising questions marks on the validity of the  FFM, finding significant covariance amongst factors of the Big 5. Future research This may suggest further adaption to certain demographic which are outside the confines of urban populations and not in full time education, although a level of literacy testing  would have to be established to ensure reliability ,though testing the wider demographic adolescents who do not attend school would provide additional data for the hypothesis. We produced a modified sample questionnaire which could be administered to participants not in school.

The future research also would take the following research into consideration in developing a questionnaire.Research by Morizot, (2014) discusses the potential limitations of the FFM in the Inuit suggesting the abstract focus of the FFM does not factor the ever changing Inuit and cultural diversity, which may have been  a factor in the high Conscientiousness score.

According to Research by Woods & Hampson  (2005) in a comparison between simplified variations and longer variations to measure the big 5,this  procedure may have negotiated a more accurate  score of each individual trait, though it was deemed necessary to implement  for the research due to the demographic and profile of the participant’s as previously discussed, the research took into consideration, other research conducted utilising the FM, the degree of comprised reliability and  validity in setting a point for the questions, prior to administering the research question’s to the participants a trial set of questions were conducted to 120 participants  who met the research criteria, the validity and reliability on the shorter variation may not be as accurate as a longer test,

 

 

 

CONCLUSION

The implications of our research  findings based on our factor analysis of the data from the participants questionnaire, as the research hypothesised  we were able to identify  the 25 items questionnaire had successfully measured  the five factors. The factor analysis we conducted indicated 5 factors related to the IPIP-25 inventory.

The results of the questionnaire indicated that item 16 loaded onto factor 2 which was Neuroticism. Instead of the expected factor 5 which was  Agreeableness. Factor 5. Agreeableness demonstrated subordinate loadings   compared to the other factors on questionnaire   Extraversion, Neuroticism, Openness, and Conscientiousness. The research indicated the conscientiousness   results   have the highest connotation amongst the participant group and Neuroticism the  highest response The research suggested agreeableness  had scored the lowest comparatively to the other factors

Future research may involve a longer questionnaire administered for the participation of parents or carers of the participants to examine any correlation of traits to the hypothesis, Future research  adapting the questionnaire for the Intuit adolescent’s   population who do not attend school. Conduct a research test and examine the Conscientiousness trait in the participants as a follow up test in a few years and compare the traits amongst adolescents in education and not education to understand the environment as a correlating factor within the personality traits

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Word count: 1827

 

 

References

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Costa, P. T., & McCrae, R. R. (1992). NEO-PI(R) professional manual. Odessa, FL: Psychological Assessment Resources.

 

Feingold, A. (1994). Gender differences in personality: A meta-analysis. Psychological Bulletin, 116(3), 429-456.

 

Ferrazzi, P., & Krupa, T. (2016). ‘Symptoms of something all around us’: Mental health, Inuit culture, and criminal justice in Arctic communities in Nunavut, Canada. Social Science & Medicine, 165159-167. doi:10.1016/j.socscimed.2016.07.033

 

Eggertson, L. (2013). Risk of suicide 40 times higher for Inuit boys. CMAJ : Canadian Medical Association Journal, 185(15), E701–E702. http://doi.org/10.1503/cmaj.109-4594

 

Gurven, M., von Rueden, C., Massenkoff, M., Kaplan, H., & Lero Vie, M. (2013). How universal is the Big Five? Testing the five-factor model of personality variation among forager–farmers in the Bolivian Amazon. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 104(2), 354-370.

 

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